EFFECT OF FOREIGN REMITTANCES ON GENDER PARITY IN PAKISTAN: EVIDENCE FROM A PANEL DATA TECHNIQUES
Dr. Ahmed Raza Cheema
Muhammad Yasir Nadeem
Ph.D. Scholar, University of Sargodha, Pakistan, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Research background: Foreign remittances emerge as the main source of inflow of foreign financial resources in developing countries like Pakistan. They have multidimensional impacts on such like economies.
Purpose of the article: Gender inequality is a characteristic of most societies, with males on average better positioned as compared to females socially and economically. The fifth goal of the Sustainable Development Goals is to enforce gender equality. To explore the factors affecting gender parity in Pakistan.
Methods: The study estimates gender parity in terms of the ratio of female gross enrollment to male gross enrollment, per capita income by adjusting the price differences among different localities and foreign remittances from Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) from 1998-99 to 2018-19. Then, the study applies panel date techniques- fixed effect, random effect, GLS regression and Panel corrected standard error regression.
Findings and value-added: The results of the study show the statistically significant positive relationships between gender parity and foreign remittances. The other important factor-per capita income has also statistically significant positive effects on gender parity. At the regional level, the results reveal that foreign remittances and per capita income have statistically significant positive effects on gender parity in urban areas as well. In case of rural areas foreign remittance do not have statistically significant positive impacts, but per capita income has. At a policy level, it is suggested that Government should adopt such policies as can maximize the inflow of foreign remittances and enhance the economic growth of the country. Our study adds to the literature by estimating the role of foreign remittances on gender parity at the international and national levels using the panel data consisting of 72 observations for the period from 1998/99 to 2018/19.
JEL Classification: D63; F24; N15
Keywords: Gender parity; foreign remittances; economic growth; Pakistan